Guide our Feet in the Way of Peace 

By Nathan Hosler

This blog post is a sermon given by Office of Peacebuilding and Policy director Nathan Hosler. To learn more about Christian Peacemaker teams, visit their website here. 

Luke 1:68-79 

We are called to be a sign, a witness to the peace of Christ. To proclaim rightly, means that the peace of Christ cannot be forced. We can’t impose peace, at least not a true peace that is both geopolitical and personal, that is both an inward reconciliation and an outward wellbeing, that is both reconciliation to God and to neighbor and even, inexplicably, to our enemy. We cannot—nor should we try—to force peace. We bear witness to it, proclaim it. We must struggle for it—we must dedicate ourselves to it.  

In our Luke passage there are two layers of proclamation. One is of the coming savior. In verse 68 we hear—“The Lord has redeemed”. In the next verse “He has raised up a mighty savior for us in the house of his servant David,..” This will be Jesus, Emmanuel—God with us. The Prince of Peace. This is the Advent waiting for the incarnate one. This is God coming near to heal.  

In a resolution on drone warfare initially drafted in the Office of Peacebuilding and Policy and then passed at our 2013 denominational Annual Conference—we referenced this coming near to heal. It reads in part:  

All killing mocks the God who creates and gives life. Jesus, as the Word incarnate, came to dwell among us (John 1:14) in order to reconcile humanity to God and bring about peace and  healing. In contrast, our government’s expanding use of armed drones distances the decisions to use lethal force from the communities in which these deadly strikes take place. We find the efforts of the United States to distance the act of killing from the site of violence to be in direct conflict to the witness of Christ Jesus 

While our policies and practices often pull us apart, drive wedges between groups, and heighten animosity—our ministry of reconciliation and peacemaking is proclaimed by the one for whom we wait this advent.  

There is also a second layer of proclamation in Zechariah’s song—that of the messenger, John—who will be called John the Baptizer. He will prepare the way for the Holy one. In verse 76 we read, “And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Most High; for you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways,…”  

Throughout this text, through the two layers of proclamation we see the mighty acting of God on the plane of human history. The passages ends with— “By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.” 

To guide our feet into the way of peace. Because many of us have read the story beyond Christmas, we know that the awaited baby Jesus will become the teaching Jesus who will say, “Blessed are the peacemakers for they will be called the children of God.” He will teach to love one’s enemy and pray for the one that persecutes you. He will teach to go and confront and be reconciled. He will guide our feet into the way of peace. 

In this town peacemaking is an odd word. Even for organizations that work for things that I would characterize as peace, peacemaking—the term—is a little unusual. While at dinner after speaking on a panel about Nigeria, I was talking with a colleague from one such organization. I was in the throes of dissertation writing and I revealed that I was writing on peacemaking within the work of Stanley Hauerwas. While she certainly didn’t know of Hauerwas she also wondered why the term peacemaking rather than the more common “peacebuilding.” I noted that while I use the terms somewhat interchangeably, the term peacemaking is based on the biblical text, “Blessed are the peacemakers for they will be called children of God.”  

But why are these peacemakers called the children of God? A chapter later we read– Love your enemy because God who is your heavenly parent sends rain on both the righteous and unrighteous. God provides even for the enemy. To resemble your parent is to demonstrate that the you are a child. “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the children of God.” I am not sure when I first learned about Christian Peacemaker Teams, but I think it was sometime as a child. I grew up in a Church of the Brethren congregation and my grandfather and his brothers were conscientious objectors. I grew up believing that to follow Jesus meant serving others and being against war. In college as my understanding of my vocational call to ministry took shape, I felt the same theological impulse that brought about CPT—If I am opposed to war, I need to be ready to work for peace. For my graduate work in international relations I almost wrote on Christian Peacemaker Teams.  

I have a vivid memory of being at the Church of the Brethren’s Annual Conference over the time when I was beginning to decide what I would research. We met up with Art Gish, an old CPTer, to talk about intentional community. While walking briskly through the crowds of people I told him I was considering writing on the power leveraged by CPT as international actors. The picture caught in my mind is him looking back at me, with his bushy white brethren beard, a big smile and laughing, saying “I don’t know why it works, but it works!” The earlier work of CPT focused on “Getting in the Way,” more explicitly using their international presence in nonviolent resistance to both stop violence and highlight the situation for the broader international community. This then plays on international institutions, geopolitics, and broadly international relations—hence my interest as a Historic Peace Church kid studying international relations. While CPT still works in this context its work and framing of its work has evolved over the years. We now describe the work thusly: “CPT builds partnerships to transform violence and oppression.”   

We then expand this by describing this short phrase by stating that the work is:
Inclusive, multi-faith, spiritually guided peacemaking. We approach injustice from a spirit of faith and compassion.   

CPT accompanies and supports our partners in their local peacemaking work in situations of violent oppression. 

Committed to undoing the structures of oppression that feed violence, both in society and within our organization. 

Christian Peacemaker Teams has projects in Iraqi-Kurdistan accompanying human rights defenders and supporting communities being bombed, the city of Hebron in the West Bank of Palestine accompanying during things such as the olive harvest and monitoring heavily militarized checkpoints that children pass through on the way to school, Winnipeg, Canada with the Indigenous Peoples Solidarity Program, in Colombia with small holder farmers at risk of displacement from their land, and a regional project on the Island of Lesbos with arriving refugees.  

First, CPT’s work is Inclusive, multi-faith, spiritually guided peacemaking. We approach injustice from a spirit of faith and compassion. 

A few weeks ago, Marcos Knobloch, a full-time CPTer on the Colombia team, was with me DC. My office arranged a series of meetings with partners and US government bodies—specifically the Tom Lantos Commission on Human Rights staff and with the State Department. In the course of telling about their work he noted that while there are a number of international organizations working in their area of Colombia, CPT is the only one that is faith-based. This spiritually guided peacemaking gives them a particular pastoral work as they accompany people that have suffered violence.  

Secondly, CPT accompanies and supports our partners in their local peacemaking work in situations of violent oppression.  

Marcos also spoke about CPT Colombia’s work to protect human rights defenders and vulnerable communities. Since the signing of the peace accords late in 2016 there have been 350 assassinations—approximately 1 every other day. In this context CPT works with the Corporation for Humanitarian Action for Peace and Coexistence in Northeastern Antioquia (CAHUCOPANA). CAHUCOPANA has being working for human rights for small scale miners and farmers for 14 years and because of this work has faced many threats. CPT has been working with them since 2009. While the government has agreed to provide such leaders protection, this is often limited to cities. In these isolated areas accompaniment is vital. In this, CPT plays an unique and critical role.  

Thirdly, CPT is Committed to undoing the structures of oppression that feed violence, both in society and within our organization. In Canada, with the Indigenous Peoples Solidarity project this involves working for decolonization and challenging corporate and government exploitation Indigenous nations. In Hebron this involves living and working in the old city—being a physical presence in a contested space and documenting the military occupation.  

 

 “CPT builds partnerships to transform violence and oppression.”   

By the tender mercy of our God, the dawn from on high will break upon us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace. 

In this second Sunday of Advent we continue to prepare for the coming of Jesus. The one who will embody peace, who will bring reconciliation and justice, and who will teach blessed are the peacemakers. The incarnation—the coming of Jesus—is the showing up of God to bring healing.  

Show up. Peacemaking, like the Incarnation, involves showing up.  

I invite you to continue with us in this important work. We need our teams on the ground. We need individuals to go on two-week delegations to learn, support, and then tell the story. We need funds, prayers, passing on our publications. As the Apostle Paul teaches in Romans–“For as in one body we have many members, and not all members have the same function.” (Romans 12). We are called to peacemaking. Our common call to peacemaking will look different. —may Christ guide us in the way of peace

Defend Human Rights: Ban Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems

It seems like something out of a dystopian novel- autonomous killer robots, making decisions about who is targeted and when to fire their weapons. Unfortunately, scenarios involving Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) aren’t as fantastical as we would like to believe. Many of the weapons used today are already employing artificial intelligence technology to aid in military operations, and the industry is headed rapidly towards the development of fully autonomous systems in which humans are not involved in the final decision to strike.

On this Human Rights Day, we call attention to the potential for LAWS to take away the basic human rights of “life, liberty and security of person” and the right to a hearing before an impartial tribunal in relation to criminal charges, as laid out in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Church of the Brethren laid out the biblical rationale for sanctity of life in a 2010 statement, saying, “sanctity of life was and is a fundamental value of our faith. According to the biblical witness we recognize the following as foundational for our conviction regarding the sanctity of life: God created human beings in the image of God (Gen. 1:26), and God proclaimed this creation “very good.” In Exodus God commands the Israelites to “not wrong or oppress a resident alien” (Ex. 22:21).”  The church’s commitment to human rights is evident in it’s work against the use of drones in warfare. Even the human-operated drone strikes have resulted in unacceptable loss of human rights for targeted communities, and autonomous weapons would accelerate our departure from human rights norms in how we deal with international conflict.

The trend towards development of autonomous weapons is chilling, and a wide range of industry representatives, faith communities and human rights NGOs have called for a complete ban on the development of and use of LAWS. The Future of Life Institute coordinated a Lethal Autonomous Weapons pledge, which has been signed by industry leaders like Google DeepMind and Elon Musk.

The Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, the European Forum on Armed Drones, and many other disarmament-focused organizations are working to incorporate language against LAWS into United Nations and European Union policy. The Interfaith Working Group on Drone Warfare continues to advocate in Washington, D.C. for good drone policy on the United States’ end.

The Church of the Brethren affirmed it’s statement against the use of drones in warfare in 2013, and has been working with the Interfaith Working Group on Drone Warfare since then to enact policy changes in the United States. The Church views the use of drones as a moral issue, as it does all participation in war, saying in the 2013 statement that “war or any participation in war is wrong and entirely incompatible with the spirit, example and teachings of Jesus Christ,” (1918 Statement of Special Conference of the Church of the Brethren to the Churches and the Drafted Brethren) and that all “war is sin…[and that we] cannot encourage, engage in, or willingly profit from armed conflict at home or abroad.”

To urge the company responsible for the Predator and Reaper drones (General Atomics) to sign the Future of Life Institute pledge to not develop lethal autonomous weapons systems, our office is working with the Interfaith Working Group on Drone Warfare to host a faith rally on May 3rd in Washington, DC. At this event, we will share why drone warfare is illegal, immoral and ineffective, and our communities will call for an end to CIA drone strikes and for General Atomics to sign the Future of Life pledge on lethal autonomous weapons.

Join us for the rally on May 3rd! More details can be found here.  Can’t make it to D.C. for the rally? Organize your own demonstration in your own community, and support us on social media with the hashtag #EndDroneWarfare.

Drone strikes are being ordered on our behalf, as U.S. citizens. It is important that we take the time to speak up for justice for the victims of the drone strikes that are already happening, and preemptively protect human rights that would be taken away by the use of autonomous weapons.

Exporting Violence: How preoccupation with U.S. economic interests is undermining peace around the world

As members of the Church of the Brethren, it is easy to forget that there are worldviews other than “peacefully, simply, together.” In our communities of faith, we are much more likely to have discussions about how we can make peace or build relationships with global competitors than we are to have discussions about how to gain coercive economic power over our international peers. As it says in the statement Justice and Nonviolence, “persons who aim to maximize their wealth and power rather than serve human needs deny the sacredness of life.” This lens is not universal, however- something that is made abundantly clear when looking at the United States’ approach to national security in recent years.

The National Security Strategy released earlier this year by the Trump administration lists “Promote American Prosperity” among it’s three main pillars, arguing that “a strong economy protects the American people, supports our way of life, and sustains American power… A growing and innovative economy allows the United States to maintain the world’s most powerful military and protect our homeland.” This view is driven home by presidential advisor Peter Navarro in a New York Times op-ed, where he highlights the administration’s belief that “economic security is national security.”

This focus on American prosperity in relation to national security has begun to impact the global community, as U.S. arms sale policies are adjusted for the express purpose of benefiting the U.S. economically. This economic focus comes at a cost- a decrease in focus on the impacts of U.S. weapons sales on peace efforts, humanitarian situations and human rights.

  • The gun manufacturing industry has pushed for rule changes that would loosen oversight of foreign military sales. The proposed change would move the foreign sale of certain semi-automatic weapons under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce rather than the State Department. This move would make it easier to sell these weapons abroad, and more difficult for human rights actors to track where guns are going and how they are used.

It is ethically problematic to suggest that the economic interests of the American people outweigh the human rights of people impacted by U.S. arms sales. In its statement entitled Call to Peacemaking, the Church called for policies that “convert our national priorities to peaceful and life affirming production.” In its Justice and Nonviolence statement, the church called for the United States to “cease immediately its sales of arms to other countries.”

So what can we do to push back on this economic focus?

We can support legislation that will counteract the proposed rule changes- especially bills like H.R. 4765, which would counteract the shift of semiautomatic weapons to the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce. Let your Representative know that the bill has been introduced, and ask them to add themselves as a co-sponsor.

We can learn from and support coalitions and organizations working to make the arms trade more transparent, and those working to put pressure on defense contractors. Check out  organizations like the Forum on the Arms Trade, the Stimson Center, the Divest from the War Machine campaign, and the Security Assistance Monitor to learn more about this issue.

We can recognize the legitimate concerns that those employed in defense-related industries have for their livelihoods. We must restructure the economy in a way that allows for a just transition for these people into jobs that contribute to the well-being of humanity rather than to war.

Most importantly, we must continue view the world through the lens of the Brethren values that have been reiterated time and time again through our discussions and statements at Annual Conferences. This includes self-sacrificing perspectives on the relationship between economic gain, national security and global power, a commitment to non-violent solutions to conflict, and the desire for all of humanity to live with peace and justice.

Make Peace and Justice a Campaign Issue!

In 1989, the Church of the Brethren passed an Annual Conference Statement on Church and State. In this statement, the Church recognized the importance of speaking out against the government when it is “doing things that negate and deny God’s will as revealed in Jesus Christ and the Bible,” and in support of government when its work aligned with the “general direction of God’s will and way (human well-being, justice and peace).”

As we get closer to election day, candidates for public office will be available to you at town halls, campaign events, and even online question sessions. These are opportunities for you to let your current or future legislators know which issues matter to you as a person of faith. Other voters present at these events may also have their interest in the issue piqued by your questions!

Please consider taking advantage of these opportunities to show politicians that Christians care deeply about justice domestically and globally, and are willing to speak up about our commitment to peace.


Types of Events:

  • Town Halls
    • Town halls are a chance for legislators or candidates to meet their constituents, give legislative updates and answer questions from the community. You can find a list of town halls in your congressional district at The Townhall Project. Most of these events are in-person, but some may be virtual.
  • Campaign Events
    • Candidates for office often travel throughout the community to meet their potential future constituents and share their views with voters. These are typically listed on the individual’s campaign website or social media. While there may not be a scheduled time for questions, you may be able to bring up the issues in conversation with the candidate.
  • What if my candidates aren’t available? 
    • There are still plenty of opportunities to get your candidates’ attention. Social media is often just as public a forum as a town hall, and your message has the potential to be amplified by other interested voters! Find your candidate on Twitter and Facebook, and use the sample posts below to bring up the same concerns.

Issues to Bring Up: 

Drone Warfare

Drone strikes are used by the United States around the world, including countries like Libya, Somalia, Yemen, and Afghanistan. These strikes are shrouded in secrecy, often kill civilians, and incite fear and anger in the affected communities.

Our office works with the Interfaith Working Group on Drone Warfare to tell Congress that drone strikes are immoral, illegal, and ineffective. We need your help to tell legislators that their constituents care!

One Church of the Brethren member from Michigan asked Rep. Justin Amash questions on drone warfare this past spring. Check out his example here. 

  • Sample Town Hall Questions
    • If you are elected, what steps will you take to curb the harmful impacts of the U.S weaponized drone program on communities around the world?
    • Can you commit to supporting legislation that would end the CIA’s authority to conduct drone strikes?
  • Sample Tweets
    • [CandidatesHandle], can you commit to supporting legislation that would end the CIA’s authority to conduct drone strikes? #EndDroneWarfare
    • {CandidatesHandle], if elected, what steps will you take to curb the harmful impacts of the U.S. weaponized drone program? #EndDroneWarfare

Refugee Resettlement

This month, the administration announced goal refugee resettlement numbers lower than at any point in the program’s history. This change denies stability to thousands of refugees fleeing conflict and disaster, and weakens the refugee resettlement structures- including faith-based organizations like Church World Service! This action is directly counter to the commitments we have made as a church to care for immigrants and refugees, and it is important that people of faith step up to advocate for these marginalized communities.

  • Sample Town Hall Questions
    • This past year, the administration released the lowest refugee resettlement goal in the program’s history. If elected, what will you do to ensure that the United States provides a home to those fleeing violence, oppression and disaster?
  • Sample Tweets
    • [CandidatesHandle], This year’s refugee resettlement goal numbers were released- lowest in program’s history. If elected, what will you do to make sure the United States continues to welcome refugees?  #RefugeesWelcome

Able to ask a question at a town hall? We’d love to hear about it! Email us the story and any pictures/video to vbateman@brethren.org, so we can share your work with other Brethren interested in getting involved. 


Interested in learning more? You can find additional background on the Church of the Brethren’s approach to these issues here: 

Drones: 

Refugee Resettlement: 

  • The Church of the Brethren is a member of the Interfaith Immigration Coalition, which advocates for policies that treat refugees and immigrants with dignity and justice. 
  • The recent release of the low refugee resettlement numbers is detailed in this article from the New York Times.
  • Church of the Brethren Statement on Undocumented Persons and Refugees states that: We need to affirm that everything belongs to God and that we are part of an immigrant people who are looking for better land. Our brother and sister immigrants are reminders of who we are and whom we serve. The refugees and immigrants bring needs with them but they also bring considerable skills, rich cultures, and great spirits which can enrich us all. We look forward to a time when all people will be free to move from one nation to another and to choose their homeland without restriction. If that seems impossible to us now, it is only because sinful greed and fear still divide the nations East and West North and South, poor and rich, crowded and spacious.

Washington D.C. Nigeria Working Group

This analysis was written by Zakaria Bulus, who interned in the Office of Peacebuilding and Policy this summer through Ministry Summer Service. 

Nigeria has been referred to as the Giant of Africa in terms of population and economy, and it is the largest democracy in Africa. The state has topped the list of wealthiest African economies.“ It has overtaken South Africa in 2014 with GDP valued at $568.5 primarily due to its richness in oil and gas reserves. This short paper is an analysis of the Nigeria Working Group meetings, resolutions and other related events in the United States capital on issues concerning the well-being, challenges and the progress of Nigeria. Currently, the group is discussing the 2019 general election, the farmer-herder conflict and issues of humanitarian support that will  inform the policy makers in the United States.

About the Nigeria Working Group

The Nigeria Working Group is coordinated by Dr. Nathan Hosler, Director of the Church of the Brethren, Office of Peacebuilding and Policy. It started after the 2014 Chibok kidnappings, when over 200 school girls in Chibok local government of Borno State were taken as hostages by Boko Haram.  Civil society advocacy groups met during a “Bring Back Our Girls” rally, and agreed to continue meeting to discuss their Nigeria efforts.

The Nigeria Working Group (NWG) consists of organizations and individuals that work on Nigerian issues within  the context of U.S. policy. The group includes different international organizations in Washington DC. Some of these organization have field offices in Nigeria.

The NWG meets monthly to discuss the current situation of the Nigeria crisis and the operation of the government in general towards the welfare of its citizens, as well as how Nigeria influences the rest of Africa. Since its inception, the group has coordinated congressional briefings, written letters to various public officials, and organized discussions on providing support to Nigeria. They also meet with key stakeholders and policymakers to brief them on what is happening in the field to gain support that will improve livelihood as well as foster peaceful coexistence in the country, especially as the 2019 election approaches. This includes the State Department and legislators and their staff  on issues affecting Nigeria.

NWG  are working on issues around human rights, peaceful coexistence, research, and providing humanitarian and other developmental support by organizations within the group. Beneficiaries include the victims of farmer-herder conflict, victims of the Boko Haram insurgency in IDP camps and host communities. Due to  their in-country presence, they receive regular updates regarding the situation on the ground in Nigeria. It should be noted that most of the organizations working in Nigeria are also from the United States.The NWG also intends to draft a joint letter on the farmer-herder conflict and another joint letter to Secretary of State after consultation with members for their inputs about the broad strategy on elections in Nigeria.

Recommendations:

The group should continue inviting Nigerian citizens that are in the US and are well informed about the issues in Nigeria to bring diversity into the group discussions. This will bring diversity into the group deliberation with more relevant ideas and insights on the Nigerian situation. It would also make Nigerians themselves keep reflecting on what they can do while in  diaspora for the development of their country.

As Nigeria approaches its general election in February 2019, the group should develop   a strategy on how to be involved in election monitoring so that they can have firsthand information on election credibility and its outcome.

The working group should pay close attention and  time to the issue of religion in relation to conflict as most of the facts on the causes of religious conflict are  viewed as a result of poverty, ethnicity, or the growing population of people looking for livelihood which are part of the sources of conflict but the role of faith cannot be overemphasized in Nigerian peaceful coexistence.

For the congressional briefing, the NWG should reflect on the violence surrounding the 2011 presidential election and the peaceful outcome of 2015 general election. This will provide an opportunity to learn lessons from the elections’ outcome and how they impact Nigerian  polls positively or negatively.

Another issue of concern is the safety of and the provision of basic amenities for the returnees from the IDP camps and those in  host communities as they return to their places of origin so that their livelihood, education, shelter, and healthcare can be guaranteed. The group should also advocate for the support of local peacebuilding efforts in the conflict-affected states and non-conflict states, and increase their call for good governance within the three tiers of government in bringing healing and trust among the people.

Nigeria has the potential to be an example of good governance and peaceful coexistence in Africa, but is weak due to lack of good   governance, tribalism,lack of good public educational system, devaluation of its currency, and religious fundamentalism among others. Presently, its GDP has dropped to $375.77 billion in 2017. Hence, the Nigeria Working Group in DC is strategic in coming out with recommendations to the government on how to support Nigeria sustainably since they have some considerable knowledge about the happenings in Nigeria. Their meeting outcomes can serve as an eye-opener to the Nigerian government, the US Congress and the United States government towards policies that affect the country. By continuing to pursue its current advocacy work and  incorporating the suggestions above, the Nigeria Working Group can have a positive impact on policies that impact the country.

Privatization of War

Profiting off the pain or exploitation of another human being is wrong. Not only does it make one complicit in the harm of another, it provides an economic incentive to continue in the harmful behavior. This is just as true for profit from war and violent conflict as it is for profiting from human trafficking or theft. The Church of the Brethren Annual Conference Statement on War, approved in 1970, affirms that, “We, therefore, cannot encourage,engage in, or willingly profit from armed conflict at home or abroad.”
 
This refusal to willingly profit from violence is relevant to the current public discussion on privatizing the war in Afghanistan. Erik Prince, who founded the mercenary firm Blackwater- infamous for the Nisour Square massacre of Iraqi civilians in 2007- first proposed privatizing the war in Afghanistan while the Trump administration was re-evaluating its strategy last year.
 
While the administration ultimately decided to go in a different direction, the proposal has resurfaced in recent days as Prince launched a media campaign to influence President Trump’s approach to Afghanistan. Appearing on television news sources as diverse as MSBCCBS and Fox News, Prince recommends that the United States replace U.S. forces with a smaller contractor force of alumni Special Forces/NATO fighters.
 
If Prince’s plan were implemented, privately contracted security forces would be embedded with Afghan troops, assisting the local forces in pushing back the Taliban. Prince proposes replacing the current 15,000 troops and 30,000 contractors with a smaller force of about 2000 military special-ops, and 6000 contractors. He also calls for the use of CIA in the region, backed by air power. The stated objectives of Prince’s plan- a reduction in military spending and a decrease in the number of troops on the ground, would technically move us in a positive direction. However, the underlying motivation of the change- making war more economically efficient, is counterproductive to our work towards long term stability, peace and justice worldwide.
 
The Church of the Brethren believes that “all war is sin”, but it is important to expressly take a stand against war that is explicitly bringing economic incentives for military action. Private military companies (PMCs), the contractor forces who carry arms and are engaged in direct security and combat operations, have commoditized conflict. As profit-seeking entities, there is little reason to believe that private companies would be free of self-interested decisions that would extend conflict to ensure continued income. A free-market for force could also lead to PMCs from various countries competing to be the most effective security forces- which would include pressure to lower the bar for adhering to human rights standards that limit the range of acceptable security activities in which they can engage.
 
It is important to recognize that economic incentives for military action are not new, and not limited to mercenary firms. In the 1970 AC statement on war, the Church of the Brethren said that although it recognizes “that almost all aspects of the economy are directly or indirectly connected with national defense, we encourage our members to divorce themselves as far as possible from direct association with defense industries in both employment and investment.” These concerns about public military spending and the economic incentives created by military production remain and are of huge concern to us. However, moving from a public military force to a private military force would exacerbate the negative impact of market forces on our propensity to resort to violence.  
 
In addition to increasing the economic incentives for violence, private military companies raise huge oversight concerns. Legally legitimate use of force in conflict zones being outsourced by nations to private companies reduces the extent to which these armed actors are directly accountable to our democratic institutions. Concerns over weak oversight have plagued the private defense industry, as military actors and civilian actors operate under different legal expectations and accountability mechanisms. For example, the Blackwater employees who killed Iraqi civilians in 2007 saw their case go through civilian courts rather than military courts.  A lack of transparency also makes oversight of contractors difficult. Because the companies can claim certain information as “proprietary,” researchers and journalists have difficulty understanding and analyzing the true impact of these firms.
 
In 1934, the Church of the Brethren passed an Annual Conference statement on war that said, “As a people we have opposed wars at all times throughout our entire history of over two hundred twenty-five years and we have stood with equal consistency for constructive peace principles in all relationships of life. We hate war because we love peace, our way of life at all times.” This sentiment, which has remained a core value of the Church of the Brethren, must inform our thinking on proposals like Prince’s. Rather than encouraging the privatization of war, the U.S. government should channel the frustration with our long-running military engagement into a positive re-evaluation of military tactics, one that uses the momentum towards “new ideas” to use innovative alternatives towards violence. Diplomacy, nonviolent direct action, Unarmed Civilian ProtectionCivilian-Based Defense, and other creative solutions to violent conflict have lacked investment.
 
With its incredible access to funding, research capabilities, and sway over public and political opinion, the Pentagon has an opportunity to make huge steps towards peace as the country reevaluates the effectiveness of traditional military action. We must push the administration and the Department of Defense to prepare for peace, rather than continuing along our path of militarization.

Reflections on the Washington, DC Workcamp

This summer, the Office of Peacebuilding and Policy welcomed a group of junior highers for the Washington, D.C workcamp. The following is a guest blog post from Marilyn, a junior high workcamper who participated in the workcamp.

Workcampers meet with a staff member from Senator Casey’s office.

On July 29th, 2018, three other members of the Mountville Church of the Brethren and I packed our bags and drove to a Christian work camp in Washington, D.C. All of us, including our two advisors, were extremely excited. But I had no idea how much my experiences would positively impact my life and mindset. It was here where I realized how much being a Christian and being a citizen overlap.

During this workcamp, me and 10 other campers worked in the Marvin Gaye Parks. On the first day of work, we weeded and composted in the Marvin Gaye urban gardens, where people who normally wouldn’t be able to buy fresh fruits and vegetables can pick their own in exchange for garden work. This makes these gardens valuable to people in need of fresh produce.

On the rest of the camp’s work days, all the campers participated in removing Kudzu plants from some of the parks’ beautiful land and trees. This invasive plant was concealing the beauty of nature that parks can provide that people living in the city rarely get to experience.

One day, after a much needed shower and a change of clothes, everyone walked to the Senator’s office to advocate for the LWCF. The LWCF stands for the Land and Water Conservation Fund, and it is a program where the government works to protect national, state and local parks by helping to fund them.

The money given to the parks is often used to help keep it clean and safe. Through working in the Marvin Gaye Parks, all the campers realized that parks play big parts in our communities, especially parks in the city, where people have an opportunity to escape the busy, crowded place that they live in. But this important fund will expire on September 30th, if Congress doesn’t take action. So, in the Senator’s office, we spoke to PA’s senator’s education board about why the LWCF should stay in action. The person we talked to listened to our every word and said she would do all she could to help keep the fund going.

Parks such as the Marvin Gaye Parks are very important to our communities, but we often take them for granted. Parks give people a place to exercise, socialize, and learn about nature. So conserving them is a big deal, and at work camp, we learned that being a Christian means standing up for what you may, or not believe is good for our communities.

While being a Christian does mean standing up for what you believe in, it also means serving God by serving people. When you help to take care of your community and its citizens, you are also loving God and that is where being a Christian and being part of a community overlap.

When our workcamp ended, I had a completely different mindset than I had before it started. From working and caring for a park, I realized that helping our communities is a big part of loving God, and that is what being a Christian is all about.

 

Human Trafficking: Part II

By Doris Abdullah, CoB representative to the United Nations. To learn more about human trafficking, stop by the human trafficking booth at Annual Conference. 

Human Trafficking Hotline: 1-888-373-7888 Text HELP to: BeFree (233733)

The trafficking hotline is open 24 hours 7 days at week. Over 200 languages are available in addition to English and Spanish. We, in the faith and spiritual community, can also be a hotline as we raise awareness to the trafficked victims around us. Below are several summarized cases of human trafficking which can be found in more details online. I hope we can all become more informed about the subject as information becomes available. We are the eyes and ears of our communities and we should know what is going on all around us.. As a community, let us join together and stop human trafficking.

“As for mortals, their days are like grass; the wind passes over it, and it is gone.”

Psalm 103:15-16

I believe human trafficking is a moral evil driven by material greed for the god of money. The desire for riches, while powerful, can be overcome with the use of the justice systems to punish the illegal buying and selling of human cargo combined with a spiritual commitment to overcome the evils of slavery. All the cases of human trafficking involve material transactions. One rescued young women said she was “an ATM machine”. Of course, she was never a machine. She was the victim of a brutal crime of exploitation for financial gain that is widespread and in our backyards.

“In Our Backyard” is a documentary about sex trafficking in Brooklyn, New York where I live. One of the victims was a young woman from Indonesia who answered an ad for a waitress job in the United States. She arrived at JFK airport and met a man who delivered her to her trafficker. Her traffickers initiation rites included rape among the abuses in the attic where she was held. As a sex slave she was sold every 45 minutes for the price range of $120.00 to $350.00. She was rescued after jumping off the building ledge of the apartment house where she was enslaved. I live in the next neighborhood to where she was held and worked as a slave.

In the USA we do not have a caste system as we find in India and other countries with caste. In those countries women and girls from the Dalit Caste and Bedia and Bachra tribes (in India) accept their fate as ritual sexual slaves (Devadasi, Jogins and Bacchava). These women and girls cannot change their caste, because they are born into it. What we find, in the United States, is forced prostitution hiding under the disguise of entertainment. At large sporting events, such as the Super Bowl, prestigious corporate conventions in major cities and truck stops along major highways and other similar venues, we find runaways teens and unsuspecting women and girls being held by force. They are sold to the highest bidders. The five states where the most trafficked persons have been found in are: California, Texas, Florida, Ohio and New York. But do not think for a moment, that because you do not live in one of those five states, that your state or community does not have human trafficking. Human trafficking can be found in all 50 states. The “entertainment” aspect of trafficking was found in and near the Bakken Shale oil fields in North Dakota. The same coercive and deceptive practices were used for enslavement of Native America women and girls. They left the reservation for the promise of economic advancement not to become prostitutes and certainly not to become slaves.

I became more aware of USA sex trafficking after hearing the harrowing tale of survivor and advocate Withelma “T” Ortiz Walker Pettigrew. T came from California and was trafficked from the age of 10 until she was 17. In her own words on trafficked children:

“Many children, like myself, come from various traumas previously to entering into foster care, and many times, are further exposed to trauma throughout their experience in the foster care system. Although there are many people who uplift the system for its successes, there are many elements within the experience of foster care that make youth more susceptible to being victimized. Youth within the system are more vulnerable to becoming sexually exploited because youth accept and normalize the experience of being used as an object of financial gain by people who are suppose to care for us, we experience various people who control our lives, and we lack the opportunity to gain meaningful relationships and attachments.”

Again we hear about financial gains in trafficking from T. Monetary gain is the only incentive for human trafficking.

The April 24, 2018 PBS Frontline documentary titled “Inside the Hidden Reality of Labor Trafficking in America” gave an up-close look into enslavement of children on an Ohio egg farm in 2014. The teen boys families gave up the deeds to their properties, in Guatemala, in return for a promise that their children would be given a “better life in America”. The total sum owed for their children’s trip and care in America was $15,000.00. HHS released the boys to their trafficker believing that they were relatives and or legal sponsors. The boys had to work 16 hour days for the total sum of $600.00 per week of which $550.00 had to be returned to their traffickers. The original debt sum of $15,000.00 was held over the boys head with threats of killing their parents and other relatives if they ran away. These boys were held in horrible conditions and while Frontline did not focus on harm to the boys, we are aware from similar cases of child labor trafficking that children are often subject to harsh physical abuse. Rape, beatings and malnutrition are often found among abuses and enslaved children.

“The Boys in the Bunkerhouse” by Dan Barry 2014 6 exposes the enslavement of persons with intellectual disabilities. The men worked for 30 years at a turkey farm in Atalissa, Iowa. They worked from sun up to sun down for $65.00 per month. Note deductions in salaries were made for social security, room, board and outside trips such as an outing to amusement parks. Their mental and physical health was not cared for nor were they given an education. They were adult men, but were referred to as boys, even when they reached their 60s and 70s. One man attempted to run away and was later found frozen to death a half mile from where they lived. Their life was one of harsh economic conditions and punishment when they did not work to “full” capacity. 21 men were rescued from the turkey farmhouse. They lived with no windows under lock and keys, in filth with an open toilet and blood embedded in their mangled hands. These men were victims of human trafficking. We must question disabled beggars on our city streets and hidden coop like housing in rural areas. It is better to be wrong than to just ignore unseemly and or unusual signs of trafficking in our backyards. For it is not just egg and turkey farms, but major construction and capital improvement projects, hospitality service centers, mining and agriculture laborers, where we find traffickers taking advantage of labor and moral laws in order to turn a profit.

A very disturbing human trafficking case involved a young women who escaped from a moving car. Her husband was taking her to a hospital where she was due to have her kidney involuntarily removed. Human trafficking is all the more awful when we grasp how often the source of the fraud, force and coercion are family members and other persons known to the victims. We can stop human trafficking only if we are aware that it is a crime and morally wrong regardless to the source. The family members that sell or hold in domestic servitude another family members are just as reprehensible as the business man who buys a child or mentally handicapped persons for labor on their farm or for sex.

We are all aware that slavery has been a part of human history and widely accepted throughout human history. Some even suggest that since Jesus never directly addressed slavery it’s acceptable . Still others extract passages from the written words of the Apostles Paul and Peter to perpetuate slavery and call for obedience to master from the enslaved. I prefer not to ignore Exodus (an entire book dedicated to the topic of slavery), the laws given in Leviticus and Deuteronomy and Jesus’ covenant obligation on us humans: “to love God , love our Neighbor and love Ourselves.” I can not find any space in all that love for human trafficking also known as modern day slavery. Let us all become more aware and human trafficking and work to put an end to it.

Reflections on Burundi

One of the things that I appreciate most about the Christian faith is that it provides a common denominator between people around the world. This common identity can be a catalyst for important relationship building across national boundaries. In early June, I joined the Church of the Brethren young adult work camp trip to Burundi, hoping to both build relationships and see some of the great peacebuilding work being done in the African Great Lakes region. These relationships and my increased understanding of the challenges in Burundi will feed into the work of the Office of Peacebuilding and Policy, as we increase our level of engagement with advocacy relating to the region.

The view from the THARS center porch in Gitega. Photo Credit: Tori Bateman

Located south of Rwanda, Burundi is consistently ranked among the poorest countries in the world. In 2017, the GDP per capita was just $818, according to the International Monetary Fund. In addition to poverty and humanitarian concerns, Burundi has a history of genocide and election violence. Conflict between Hutus and Tutsis killed upwards of 300,000 people in several outbreaks of violence between the 1970s and the early 1990s. More recently, political conflict has led to instability. Just a week before our work camp traveled to the region, 15 people were killed in election violence related to a referendum vote.

Banana trees planted using the agriculture methods taught by a educational program funded by the Church of the Brethren. Photo Credit: Tori Bateman

Our group was hosted by Trauma Healing and Reconciliation Services (THARS), a partner of the Church of the Brethren’s Global Mission and Service office. THARS provides mental health services to Burundians still impacted by the history of violence. This includes operating listening centers, facilitating support groups, and conducting training workshops. In addition to mental health work, THARS runs two programs that are funded by the Church of the Brethren, including training for farmers and a feeding program for Batwa schoolchildren.

Pouring concrete in the new kitchen building at THARS. Photo Credit: Grey Robinson

While at THARS, our group worked on two construction projects. At one location, the team knocked down walls in a building that was to be re-purposed as a library. Just down the hill, another group was pouring the concrete floor in a new kitchen facility. Our team worked alongside a Burundian construction crew and the national staff of THARS, who had traveled to Gitega to participate in the work camp.  These projects included a lot of shoveling, carrying bags of sand and rock, and transporting concrete via bucket brigade.

A banner for a USAID-funded peace conference that was held at THARS in 2011. Photo Credit: Tori Bateman

The impact of United States policy on Burundi could be seen everywhere we traveled. The USAID logo denoted vehicles, events and programs that have been funded with U.S. foreign aid money. Because of the reality of this impact, it is important that offices like ours maintain awareness of the situation in the country, and amplify the voices of Burundian peacebuilders in U.S. policy discussions.

 

My trip provided many useful insights into potential advocacy avenues for our office. During a meeting with one of the Office of Peacebuilding and Policy’s partners in Bujumbura, for example, I heard about one of the biggest challenges facing peacebuilding work in Burundi- a lack of long-term funding for projects. Many peacebuilding projects are only funded for one year, meaning that the work lacks consistency, there is not time to learn from mistakes and adjust programming, and programs have a limited impact. It is important that we share this funding concern with relevant government staff in Washington, D.C, as we seek to make peacebuilding programs as effective as possible.

 

David Niyonzima, founder of THARS, and Tori in Gitega. Photo Credit: Donna Parcell

I am grateful to THARS and the people of Burundi for their hospitality. Going forward, I am excited to engage with the Burundi Working Group in DC on behalf of the Office of Peacebuilding and Policy. Made up of NGOs and government agencies that work in Burundi, the group plans to engage with legislative staff, the administration, the interfaith community, and broader civil society. The group will work to increase awareness of the political and humanitarian situation in the country, and advocate for policy and funding that will support the important peacebuilding work done by partners like THARS.

Welcoming the Stranger: A Call for Just Immigration Reform

Update: As more reporting has been done on this issue, more accurate numbers have become available on the number of children separated from their parents. From April 19th-May 31st, 1995 children were separated according to Department of Homeland Security data. 
The Church of the Brethren has long acknowledged the Bible’s call for justice in immigration policy. Matthew 25:35 says, “I was a stranger and you welcomed me,” reminding us that our response to “the least of these” is just as important as the manner in which we would choose to treat Christ. As people of faith, it is essential that we respond to God’s call to welcome strangers, extend hospitality and recognize the inherent dignity of each human being. 
Yesterday, Attorney General Jeff Sessions cited the Bible in an attempt to justify the separation of children from their parents at the border as they flee violence, poverty and oppression in their home countries. Once separated from their parents, these children are held in detention centers. Over 500 children have been detained under this policy, putting them at risk for emotional trauma and abuse. 
This past spring, the world watched as the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program was rescinded, leaving hundreds of thousands of students and community members not knowing the future of their immigration status- despite having grown up in the United States. Erick, a Church of the Brethren member, shared his own story with us here. 
Temporary Protected Status (TPS) programs, which gave legal residence to people from nations facing violence or natural disaster, have also been cut. Some TPS holders have been in the country for decades, starting families and businesses, and will be forced to return to their original country if a pathway to citizenship is not created. The Haitian Church of the Brethren in Miami, Florida has been impacted by these policies, and you can read about the March for TPS they held here. 
The uncertainty, fear, and danger faced by immigrants impacted by these broken U.S. immigration policies is not acceptable. Our 1982 Annual Conference Statement on Undocumented Persons and Refugees in the United States calls for the United States government to adopt legislation and policies “which welcome and promote the welfare of immigrants and refugees,” and “to bring about a general amnesty for those people who once entered the United States as ‘undocumented aliens’ but have settled peacefully among their neighbors.” 
As people of faith, we urge the United States government to fix its broken immigration system. U.S. policies must be compassionate and just, and recognize the importance of strong families and communities. The Bible condemns those who exploit immigrants (Ezekiel 22:7), and instead calls for us to love those who are foreigners (Deuteronomy 10:19). Immigrants continue to make valuable contributions to the country, and each human being who enters the United States deserves to be treated with compassion.